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# Learn How to Write Verilog Code for Serial Adder with Accumulator

## How to Design and Implement a Serial Adder with Accumulator in Verilog

A serial adder with accumulator is a circuit that can perform binary addition of two serial inputs and store the result in an accumulator register. A serial adder with accumulator can be useful for applications that require fast and efficient arithmetic operations, such as digital signal processing, cryptography, or error correction.

## Verilog Code For Serial Adder With Accumulator

In this article, we will show you how to design and implement a serial adder with accumulator in Verilog, a hardware description language that is widely used for designing and simulating digital circuits. We will explain the basic principles and components of a serial adder with accumulator, and provide you with a Verilog code example that you can use for your own projects. We will also show you how to test and verify your Verilog code using a simulation tool.

## What is a Serial Adder with Accumulator?

A serial adder with accumulator is composed of three main components: a serial adder, an accumulator register, and a clock signal. Let's see what each component does and how they work together.

• A serial adder is a circuit that can perform binary addition of two serial inputs. A serial input is a stream of bits that are transmitted one by one in a sequential order. A serial adder has two serial inputs (A and B), a serial output (S), and a carry output (C). The serial adder adds the least significant bits of A and B first, and outputs the sum bit to S and the carry bit to C. Then, it shifts the inputs to the right by one bit, and repeats the process until all the bits are added.

• An accumulator register is a circuit that can store and update a binary value. An accumulator register has a parallel input (D), a parallel output (Q), an enable input (E), and a clock input (CLK). The accumulator register stores the value of D when E is high and CLK rises. Then, it shifts the value to the left by one bit when CLK falls, and outputs the value to Q. The accumulator register can be used to store the sum of the serial adder by connecting S to D and C to E.

• A clock signal is a periodic waveform that alternates between high and low voltage levels. A clock signal is used to synchronize the operations of the serial adder and the accumulator register. The clock signal determines when the inputs are shifted, when the sum is stored, and when the output is updated.

By combining these three components, we can create a serial adder with accumulator that can perform binary addition of two serial inputs and store the result in an accumulator register. The diagram below shows how the components are connected.

A ----> Serial S ----> Accumulator Q ----> Output

B ---->

CLK ----> CLK -->

## How to Write Verilog Code for Serial Adder with Accumulator?

Now that we know what a serial adder with accumulator is and how it works, let's see how to write Verilog code for it. Verilog is a hardware description language that allows us to describe and simulate digital circuits using a textual syntax. Verilog code consists of modules, which are the basic building blocks of a circuit. A module has a name, a list of ports, and a body. The ports are the inputs and outputs of the module, and the body contains the statements that define the behavior of the module.

To write Verilog code for a serial adder with accumulator, we need to create three modules: one for the serial adder, one for the accumulator register, and one for the top-level module that connects them together. Let's see how to write each module in detail.

The Verilog code for the serial adder module is shown below:

input A, //serial input A

input B, //serial input B

output S, //serial output S

output C //carry output C

);

wire HA1_S; //sum output of half adder 1

wire HA1_C; //carry output of half adder 1

wire HA2_S; //sum output of half adder 2

wire HA2_C; //carry output of half adder 2

xor(HA1_S,A,B); //S = A xor B

and(HA1_C,A,B); //C = A and B

xor(HA2_S,HA1_S,C); //S = HA1_S xor C

and(HA2_C,HA1_S,C); //C = HA1_S and C

assign S = HA2_S; //S = HA2_S

assign C = HA2_C HA1_C; //C = HA2_C or HA1_C

endmodule

### Accumulator Register Module

The accumulator register module has a parallel input (D), a parallel output (Q), an enable input (E), and a clock input (CLK). The accumulator register module stores the value of D when E is high and CLK rises. Then, it shifts the value to the left by one bit when CLK falls, and outputs the value to Q. The accumulator register module can be implemented using a D flip-flop and a left shift register. A D flip-flop is a circuit that has a data input (D), a clock input (CLK), and a data output (Q). The D flip-flop stores the value of D when CLK rises, and outputs the value to Q. A left shift register is a circuit that has a parallel input (D), a parallel output (Q), and a clock input (CLK). The left shift register shifts the value of D to the left by one bit when CLK falls, and outputs the value to Q.

The Verilog code for the accumulator register module is shown below:

module accumulator_register(

input [3:0] D, //parallel input D

output [3:0] Q, //parallel output Q

input E, //enable input E

input CLK //clock input CLK

);

reg [3:0] Q; //register Q

//D flip-flop

always @(posedge CLK) begin

if(E) begin //if E is high

Q <= D; //store D in Q

end

end

//left shift register

always @(negedge CLK) begin

Q <= Q[2:0],1'b0; //shift Q to the left by one bit

end

endmodule

### Top-Level Module

The top-level module has two serial inputs (A and B), a parallel output (Q), and a clock input (CLK). The top-level module connects the serial adder module and the accumulator register module together to form a serial adder with accumulator. The top-level module connects A and B to the serial adder inputs, S to the accumulator register input, C to the accumulator register enable, and Q to the accumulator register output. The top-level module also connects CLK to both the serial adder and the accumulator register clock inputs.

The Verilog code for the top-level module is shown below:

input A, //serial input A

input B, //serial input B

output [3:0] Q, //parallel output Q

input CLK //clock input CLK

);

wire S; //serial output S

wire C; //carry output C

.A(A), //connect A to serial adder input A

.B(B), //connect B to serial adder input B

.S(S), //connect S to serial adder output S

.C(C), //connect C to serial adder output C

.CLK(CLK) //connect CLK to serial adder clock input CLK

);

//accumulator register instance

accumulator_register ar(

.D(S), //connect S to accumulator register input D

.Q(Q), //connect Q to accumulator register output Q

.E(C), //connect C to accumulator register enable E

.CLK(CLK) //connect CLK to accumulator register clock input CLK

);

endmodule

## How to Test and Verify Verilog Code for Serial Adder with Accumulator?

After writing Verilog code for a serial adder with accumulator, we need to test and verify that it works correctly and meets the specifications. To do that, we need to use a Verilog simulation tool that can compile and run our Verilog code and display the results. A Verilog simulation tool is a software that allows us to describe and simulate digital circuits using Verilog code. A Verilog simulation tool can also provide us with various features and functions that can help us debug and analyze our Verilog code.

There are many Verilog simulation tools available in the market, such as Cadence Xcelium Logic Simulator, SynaptiCAD VeriLogger Extreme, or Synopsys VCS. Each Verilog simulation tool has its own advantages and disadvantages, and we need to choose the one that suits our needs and preferences. However, most Verilog simulation tools have some common steps and procedures that we need to follow to test and verify our Verilog code. Here are the general steps we need to follow:

• Write a test bench: A test bench is a Verilog module that provides the inputs and outputs for the module under test (MUT). A test bench can also monitor and check the outputs of the MUT and report any errors or mismatches. A test bench can be written manually or generated automatically using a tool like SynaptiCAD WaveFormer Pro. A test bench should cover all the possible scenarios and cases that the MUT might encounter.

• Compile the Verilog code: Compiling the Verilog code means translating it into an executable format that the Verilog simulation tool can understand and run. Compiling the Verilog code also checks for any syntax or semantic errors in the code and reports them if any. Compiling the Verilog code can be done using a command line interface or a graphical user interface of the Verilog simulation tool.

• Run the simulation: Running the simulation means executing the compiled Verilog code and observing the results. Running the simulation can be done using a command line interface or a graphical user interface of the Verilog simulation tool. Running the simulation can also provide us with various options and controls, such as setting breakpoints, stepping through code, changing values, etc.

• View and analyze the results: Viewing and analyzing the results means displaying and examining the outputs of the simulation and comparing them with the expected outputs. Viewing and analyzing the results can be done using a waveform viewer or a debugger tool that can show us the values of signals, variables, registers, etc. Viewing and analyzing the results can also help us identify and fix any errors or bugs in our Verilog code.

By following these steps, we can test and verify our Verilog code for a serial adder with accumulator using a Verilog simulation tool. We can also use other tools or methods that can help us improve our Verilog code quality and performance, such as linting tools, synthesis tools, optimization tools, etc.

## Conclusion

In this article, we have discussed how to design and implement a serial adder with accumulator in Verilog, a hardware description language that is widely used for designing and simulating digital circuits. We have explained the basic principles and components of a serial adder with accumulator, and provided you with a Verilog code example that you can use for your own projects. We have also shown you how to test and verify your Verilog code using a Verilog simulation tool.

A serial adder with accumulator is a useful circuit that can perform binary addition of two serial inputs and store the result in an accumulator register. A serial adder with accumulator can be used for applications that require fast and efficient arithmetic operations, such as digital signal processing, cryptography, or error correction. By writing Verilog code for a serial adder with accumulator, you can create and simulate your own digital circuits and systems.

Thank you for reading this article and we hope that you found it useful and informative. If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to share them with us. We would love to hear from you. b99f773239

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